Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology

Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology

Saturday, 10 / 16 / 2021

Occult HCV Infection (OCI) Diagnosis in Cirrhotic and Non-cirrhotic Naïve Patients by Intra-PBMC Nested Viral RNA PCR


Occult HCV Infection (OCI) Diagnosis in Cirrhotic and Non-cirrhotic Naïve Patients by Intra-PBMC Nested Viral RNA PCR

Mohamed Darwish Ahmed Abd Alla*,1, Saleh Ahmed Elibiary1, George Y. Wu2 and Mostafa Kamel El-Awady3

1Tropical Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, Al-Azhar University, Cairo, Egypt
2Department of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology-Hepatology, University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, CT, USA
3Department of Microbial Biotechnology, National Research Center, Cairo, Egypt

*Correspondence to: Mohamed Darwish Ahmed Abd Alla, El-Hussein University Hospital, Al-Azhar University, Gouhar Al-Kaed Street, Al-Darasah, Cairo 11675, Egypt. Tel: +20-109-417-5209, Fax: +20-25123091, E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology 2017;5(4):319-326 DOI: 10.14218/JCTH.2017.00034

Received: May 26, 2017 Accepted: August 11, 2017 Published online: September 7, 2017


Background and Aims: Occult HCV infections (OCIs) include IgG antibody seronegative cryptogenic (COCIs), as well as seropositive secondary naïve (SNOCIs) and experienced (SEOCIs) cases. We used peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cell (PBMC)-PCR to evaluate COCIs and SNOCIs prevalence, serum HCV spontaneous disappearance (SCSD) in naïve cirrhotics and non-cirrhotics, intra-PBMC HCV-RNA strands in relation to cirrhosis density in naïve non-viremia cases, and HCV-RNA seroconversion after 1 year of solitary naïve intra-PBMC infection.

Methods: The anti-HCV IgG antibody-positive naïve-patients (n = 785) were classified into viremic (n = 673) and non-viremic [n = 112, including non-cirrhotics (n = 55) and cirrhotics (n = 57)], and 62 controls without evidence of HCV-infection. Controls and post-HCV non-viremia cases (n = 62+112 = 174) were submitted to hepatic Fibroscan-Elastography evaluation. All subjects (n = 847) were screened for intra-PBMC HCV-RNA sense and antisense strands by nested-PCR.

Results: Naïve-OCI cases (4.84%) that were diagnosed by PBMC-PCR significantly raised the total numbers of HCV-infection to 714 (p = 0.01). The percent positivity of SNOCIs (34.82%) was significantly higher than for asymptomatic-COCIs (3.125%, p = 0.0001). Comparing PBMC-PCR with single-step-reverse-transcription (SRT)-PCR for identification of SCSD in naïve IgG antibody-positive non-viremia patients (n = 112) revealed a decline in SCSD prevalence by PBMC-PCR (from 14.27% to 9.3%), regardless of presence of hepatic cirrhosis (p = 0.03). SCSD was found to be higher by PBMC-PCR in non-cirrhotics compared to cirrhotics (p = 0.0001), with an insignificant difference when using SRT-PCR (p = 0.45). Intra-PBMC HCV-RNA infection was significantly more frequent in cirrhotics compared to both non-cirrhotics and controls (p < 0.0005). An increased hepatic fibrosis density was recognized in intra-PBMC HCV-RNA infection with sense (p = 0.0001) or antisense strand (p = 0.003). HCV-RNA seroconversion was associated with intra-PBMC infection when both sense and antisense strands were detected (p = 0.047).

Conclusions: Intracellular HCV-RNA evaluation is crucial for diagnosing OCIs and addressing relapse probability.


OCIs, PBMCs, Naïve, Cirrhosis


Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology 2017 vol. 5, 319-326  Html ] [ PDF Full-text ]

© The Authors 2017. This article is published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial License (CC BY-NC 4.0 ), which permits use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non commercial and is otherwise in compliance with the license.



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