Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology

Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology

Saturday, 10 / 16 / 2021

Abstract

REVIEW ARTICLE

A Review of Hepatitis B Virus and Hepatitis C Virus Immunopathogenesis

Corey Saraceni* and John Birk

University of Connecticut School of Medicine, Department of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Farmington, CT, USA
*Correspondence to: Corey Saraceni, University of Connecticut School of Medicine, Department of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, 263 Farmington Avenue, Farmington, CT 06030-8074, USA. Tel: +1-203-733-7408, Fax: +1-860-679-3159, E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology 2021;9(3):409-418 DOI: 10.14218/JCTH.2020.00095
Received: October 20, 2020 Accepted: April 22, 2021 Published online: May 31, 2021

Abstract

Despite the advances in therapy, hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) still represent a significant global health burden, both as major causes of cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, and death worldwide. HBV is capable of incorporating its covalently closed circular DNA into the host cell’s hepatocyte genome, making it rather difficult to eradicate its chronic stage. Successful viral clearance depends on the complex interactions between the virus and host’s innate and adaptive immune response. One encouraging fact on hepatitis B is the development and effective distribution of the HBV vaccine. This has significantly reduced the spread of this virus. HCV is a RNA virus with high mutagenic capacity, thus enabling it to evade the immune system and have a high rate of chronic progression. High levels of HCV heterogeneity and its mutagenic capacity have made it difficult to create an effective vaccine. The recent advent of direct acting antivirals has ushered in a new era in hepatitis C therapy. Sustained virologic response is achieved with DAAs in 85–99% of cases. However, this still leads to a large population of treatment failures, so further advances in therapy are still needed. This article reviews the immunopathogenesis of HBV and HCV, their properties contributing to host immune system avoidance, chronic disease progression, vaccine efficacy and limitations, as well as treatment options and common pitfalls of said therapy.

Keywords

Hepatitis B immunopathogenesis, Hepatitis C immunopathogenesis

Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology 2021 vol. 9, 409-418  [ Html  ] [ PDF Full-text ]

© 2021 Authors. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the  Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial 4.0 License(CC BY-NC 4.0), permitting all non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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