Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology

Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology

Friday, 08 / 18 / 2017


Evaluation of Biomarkers in Egyptian Patients with Different Grades of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease


Evaluation of Biomarkers in Egyptian Patients with Different Grades of Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

Ibrahim H. Borai1, Yehia Shaker*,2, Maha Moustafa Kamal1, Wafaa M. Ezzat3, Esmat Ashour2, Mie Afify2, Weaam Gouda2 and Maha M. Elbrashy2

1Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt
2Biochemistry Department, National Research Centre, Giza, Egypt
3Department of Internal Medicine, National Research Center, Giza, Egypt

*Correspondence to: Yehia Shaker, Biochemistry Department, National Research Center, ElBuhous St, Dokki, Giza 12622, Egypt. Tel: +201-223715781, Fax: +202-33460627, E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology 2017;5(2):109-118 DOI: 10.14218/JCTH.2017.00004
Received: January 16, 2017 Accepted: April 17, 2017 Published online: June 7, 2017


Background and Aims: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a silent disease; its spectrum includes simple steatosis, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis and fibrosis. Pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines play roles in the pathogenesis of NAFLD and insulin resistance (IR). Moreover, plasma cell antigen-1 (PC-1) is related to IR and associated with NAFLD progression. Therefore, we aimed to detect biomarkers, ultrasonographic and anthropometric findings capable of differentiating NAFLD grades, since most previous investigators were concerned more with NAFLD patients without classifying them into grades.

Methods: A total of 87 NAFLD patients (31 with grade 1 (mild NAFLD), 26 with grade 2 (moderate NAFLD) and 30 with grade 3 (severe NAFLD) were included in the study, in addition to 47 controls (grade 0). All subjects underwent ultrasonographic examination for NAFLD diagnosis. Serum interleukin-10 (IL-10), plasma interleukin-18 (IL-18) and plasma PC-1 levels were determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

Results: Homoeostasis model assessment (HOMA)-IR was higher in different NAFLD grades than in controls. Ultrasonographic and anthropometric findings and lipid profile indices (except for high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, which was decreased) were increased with NAFLD progression. Grade 3 patients showed significant increase in levels of IL-18 and significant decrease in IL-10 and PC-1 levels when compared to grade 1 patients.

Conclusion: Anthropometric and ultrasonographic findings were valuable in differentiating NAFLD grades. IR is very important in NAFLD pathogenesis. IL-18, HOMA-index and PC-1 levels could be used to differentiate between NAFLD grades, together with other measurements.


NAFLD, Interleukin-18(IL-18), Interleukin-10(IL-10), Plasma cell antigen-1(PC-1)



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© The Authors 2017. This article is published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial (CC BY-NC) License, which permits use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non commercial and is otherwise in compliance with the license.



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