Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology

Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology

Friday, 08 / 18 / 2017

Articles

Mechanisms and Prevention of Vertical Transmission in Chronic Viral Hepatitis

REVIEW ARTICLE

Mechanisms and Prevention of Vertical Transmission in Chronic Viral Hepatitis

Marianna G. Mavilia* and George Y. Wu

Department of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology-Hepatology, University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, CT, USA
*Correspondence to: Marianna G. Mavilia, Department of Medicine, University of Connecticut Health Center, 263 Farmington Ave, Farmington, CT 06032, USA. Tel: +1-860-679-2509, Fax: +1-860-679-6582, E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology 2017;5(2):119-129 DOI: 10.14218/JCTH.2016.00067
Received: November 22, 2016 Accepted: March 31, 2017 Published online: June 7, 2017

Abstract

Vertical transmission (VT) is the primary route of transmission of viral hepatitis in children. The rate of VT ranges from 1–28% with hepatitis B virus (HBV) and 3–15% with hepatitis C virus (HCV). VT for both viruses can occur during the intrauterine or peripartum period. VT of HBV primarily occurs by intrauterine transmission (IUT). Hepatitis B surface antigen is unable to cross the placenta and, therefore, relies on processes like transplacental leakage, placental infection, cellular transmission by peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and germline transmission. HCV can also infect the fetus by IUT. Both viruses also have the potential for transmission during delivery, when there is increase chance of maternal–fetal blood exposure. HBV and HCV share some common risk factors for VT, including maternal viral load, human immunodeficiency virus co-infection and neonatal sex. Prevention of VT differs greatly between HBV and HCV. There are several alternatives for prevention of HBV VT, including antiviral medications during the third trimester of pregnancy and HBV vaccine, as well as hepatitis B immunoglobulin administration to infants post-partum. In contrast, there are no preventative interventions available for HCV. Despite these differences, the key to prevention with both viruses is screening women prior to and during pregnancy.

Keywords

Vertical transmission, Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C, Mechanisms, Prevention

 

Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology 2017 vol. 5 Html ] [ PDF Full-text ]

© The Authors 2017. This article is published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial (CC BY-NC) License, which permits use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non commercial and is otherwise in compliance with the license.

 

 logo

You are here: Home