Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology

Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology

Saturday, 09 / 26 / 2020

Articles

Pathogenesis of Thrombocytopenia in Chronic HCV Infection: A Review

REVIEW ARTICLE

Pathogenesis of Thrombocytopenia in Chronic HCV Infection: A Review

Sarah Rawi and George Y Wu

Department of Medicine, Division of Gastroenterology-Hepatology, University of Connecticut Health Center, Farmington, CT, USA

*Correspondence to: Sarah Rawi, Department of Medicine, University of Connecticut Health Center, 263 Farmington Ave, Farmington, CT 06032, USA. Tel: +1-858-692-2372E-mail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology 2020;8(2):184-191 DOI: 10.14218/JCTH.2020.00007
Received: January 30, 2020 Accepted: March 31, 2020 Published online: April 15, 2020

Abstract

A large proportion of patients with chronic hepatitis C have associated thrombocytopenia (TCP). Due to bleeding risks, TCP, when severe, can limit diagnostic and therapeutic procedures, treatments, and increases risk of complications, especially excessive bleeding. It is important to understand the mechanisms that cause TCP in order to manage it. In general, TCP can be due to increased destruction or decreased production. Proposed mechanisms of increased destruction include autoantibodies to platelets and hypersplenism with sequestration. Proposed mechanisms of decreased production include virus-induced bone marrow suppression and decreased TPO production. Autoantibodies directed against platelet surface antigens have demonstrated an inverse correlation with platelet counts. Hypersplenism with sequestration involves the interaction of portal hypertension, splenomegaly, and platelet destruction. Decreased production mechanisms involve appropriate and inappropriate levels of TPO secretion. There is limited evidence to support viral-induced bone marrow suppression. In contrast, there is strong evidence to support low levels of TPO in liver failure as a major cause of TCP. TPO-agonists, specifically eltrombopag, have been shown in hepatitis C patients to increase platelet counts without reducing portal hypertension or splenomegaly. We conclude that TCP in hepatitis C virus-induced liver disease is often multifactorial, but an understanding of the mechanisms can lead to judicious use of new drugs for treatment.

Keywords

Thrombocytopenia, Chronic hepatitis, Autoantibodies, Hypersplenism, Thrombopoietin

Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology 2020 vol. 8, 184-191  [ Html ] [ PDF Full-text ]

© The Authors 2020. This article is published under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial License (CC BY-NC 4.0), which permits use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non-commercial and is otherwise in compliance with the license.

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